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Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Some members of the Banu Aus now interceded on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to the appointment of one of their chiefs, Sa’d ibn Mua’dh , as judge. But their words were lost among the enthusiastic yodels of their comrades. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May. Soon after, in , he was defeated by Ibn Saud , who integrated Medina and the whole of the Hejaz into the modern kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century CE:

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After a series of earthquakes, a stream of lava appeared, but fortunately flowed to the east of the town and then northwards.

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OEMA located about 15 kilometres 9. The Medinans suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad was injured. Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess. Al-Baqi’ is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammadcaliphs and scholars are buried.

According to Ibn Ishaqthe local pagan Arab tribes, the Muslim Muhajirun from Mecca, the local Muslims Ansarand the Jewish population of the area signed an agreement, the Constitution of Medinawhich committed all parties to mutual co-operation under the leadership of Muhammad. Because the people of Medina had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench. Thus, ambushed in the plain between the hill and the front line, the archers were systematically slaughtered, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill, shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but to little effect.


Medina was Muhammad’s destination of his Hijrah migration from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad’s leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, and where Muhammad’s Ummah Communitycomposed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad’s original home of Mecca, developed.

Hijra Islam and Constitution of Medina.

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It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks.

Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: During the siege, Abu Sufyan had contacted the remaining Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the defenders from behind the lines. It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved from ” https: However, many early Muslim sources, including the Quran, indicate that no serious fighting was expected, [20] and the future Caliph Uthman ibn Affan stayed behind to care for his sick wife.

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Ubaydah ibn al-Harith Obeida was given the honour of “he who shot the first arrow for Islam” as Abu Sufyan altered course makkx flee the attack. InAbu Sufyan once more led Meccan forces against Medina. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that “by calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews”, Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj finally gained the upper hand at Medina.

Medina is mentioned several times as being sacred in the Quran, for example ayah ; 9: Jeddah Regional Climate Center [36].

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Like Mecca, the city of Medina only makkka Muslims to enter, although the haram area closed to non-Muslims of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. As ofvarieties of dates were being grown in the area. Now, Madinx has a new bus service called ‘tourist bus’ to give a tour of Madinah and its historical places including “The Prophet’s Mosque”.


It handles on average 20—25 flights a day, although this number triples during the Hajj season and school holidays. Clockwise from top left: It covers an area of about 50 square kilometres 19 square miles.

But their words were lost among the enthusiastic yodels of their comrades. Before the battle started, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraysh with melee weapons when they advanced. The battle front was pushed further and further away from the archers, whom, from the start of the battle, had really nothing to do but watch.

City in Madinx Madinah, Saudi Arabia. With the increasing number of pilgrim visiting each year, many hotels are being constructed. The graves of Fatimah Muhammad’s daughter and Hasan Muhammad’s grandsonacross from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi’and Abu Bakr first caliph and the father of Muhammad’s wifeAishaand of Umar ibn Al-Khattabthe second caliph, are also here.

At the city’s heart is makkka an-Nabawi ‘The Prophet’s Mosque’which is the burial place of the Islamic prophetMuhammadand it is one of the two holiest cities in Islamthe other being Mecca. Local rule was in the hands of the Hashemite clan as Sharifs or Emirs of Mecca.